Betz cells, a type of pyramidal cell neurons located in the grey matter of the brain, are the largest neurons in the central nervous system, sometimes reaching 100μm in diameter.
oculomotor neurons (colored with the brainbow technique)
more Brainbow! this is the brain stem.
So this is an amazing thing we talked about in bio the other day. It’s a method called Brainbow. It’s really hard to track neurons when they can get so long and tangly, as you can see in this light microscopy of a mouse hippocampus, so scientists can mark each neuron with a different color of fluorescence via transgenes that produce fluorescent proteins. What a brilliant solution!
The multicolored neurons sit in the cerebral cortex, which is involved in higher thought processes and sensory perception. To create a unique color in each neuron, Lichtman did some clever genetic tinkering: He inserted the genes for different-colored fluorescent proteins into the mouse’s genome so that each neuron would randomly express a combination of the genes. It ends up being a game of chance: Each neuron is essentially pulling the lever on a “molecular slot machine,” says team member Jean Livet, receiving a random combination of the genes that endow it with one of 90 possible colors.
differences in the brain’s serotonin system in females and males.
females and males differ in terms of the number of binding sites for serotonin in certain parts of the brain. this may account for the higher occurrence of depression and anxiety in females.